The Mohammedan Conquest & Muslim Rule of India

In the fullness of time, India was going to be swept away by the flood of Muslim invasion. By the end of the seventh century, Arabs were attempting to force their way into Cabul, which occurred in the year 664 A.D. At the turn of the following century, Sindh was conquered, and the city of Multan was taken, but there were no attempts made to expand the territory under their control at that time. Following the reign of Calif Harun al Raschid in Bagdad, the eastern kings saw a decline in their power and authority. In the latter part of the tenth century, the city of Ghazni was made into a satrapy. The next century, in 1001, Mahmud of Ghazni proclaimed his independence and started a string of assaults throughout the region. During the fourth of Mahmud’s expeditions, he ran against a coalition of Hindu rulers who put up a resolute fight against him. Near Peshawar, he prevailed in a harrowing fight that was fought and won by him. However, Mahmud was willing to leave subordinate rulers in the Punjab and at Guzerat, and he never aspired to organise an empire. In all, Mahmud led twelve trips into India, and during one of those excursions, he was successful in capturing the famed gates of Somnat. During his lifetime, Mahmud was without a doubt the most powerful king in all of Asia.

After he passed away, the kings of Ghazni were unable to consistently retain their authority over the region. Ala ud din of Ghor was ultimately able to topple it and seize power. Shahab ud din, his nephew, is generally regarded as the true founder of the Mohammadan Empire in India. The last remaining Mahometan adversaries were eliminated when the princes of the House of Ghazni were dethroned. These princes had sought sanctuary in the Punjab and Guzarat before to their defeat. However, in his second invasion against the Rajput state of Delhi, he was victorious, and on his third invasion, his armaments were transported all the way to Behar and even Bengal. On his first march, he was defeated.

After Shahab ud din passed away, his new and extensive Indian dominion became independent under the leadership of his commander Kutb ud din, who had started his life as a slave. Altamish, another slave, was the one who continued the dynasty. In a very short amount of time following this event, the Mongol Chief Chengiz Khan annihilated about half of the globe, yet India remained relatively unharmed. Altamish consolidated the power of the Mohammadans in Delhi over the whole of Hindustan. This line of monarchs, also known as the slave kings, came to an end after eighty-two years when Jelal ud din, who was already an elderly man, established the Khilji dynasty in 1288. This put an end to the slave kings. Ala ud din, his nephew and main Captain, began his career of conquest by invading Deckan even before he had won the kingdom for himself by murdering his uncle. This was the first step in his career of conquest. In point of fact, he was successful in putting down several uprisings and a variety of Mongol invasions, which allowed him to expand his rule over practically the whole of India. The House of Tughlak was successful in bringing an end to the Khilji dynasty in the year 1321.

Mahomet Tughlak, the second prince of this family, was a person of exceedingly noteworthy accomplishments and qualities. In spite of his extraordinary accomplishments, intelligence, self-control, and bravery, he embarked on completely irrational and impractical plans of conquest. These plans were doomed to fail not only because they were foolish in and of themselves, but also because of the means to which the monarch was forced to resort in order to acquire the resources necessary for his reckless endeavours. At the end of the century, the dynasty was overthrown and the kingdom was broken by the tremendous invasion of Tamerlane the Tartar. The revolts broke out in one part of the huge empire after another, and they continued until the end of the century. The Lodi dynasty did not establish itself in Delhi until the middle of the seventeenth century, and they governed not without honour for about seventy years throughout that time. Ibrahim, a guy who did not possess the admirable attributes that his ancestors had, served as the house’s previous head of government. And in the year 1526, Ibrahim was defeated by the powerful Baber, the founder of the Mogul empire, who established his rule over the region.

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