Baber was a member of Tamerlane’s family tree. He was a Turk, but his mother was a Mongol; this explains how his dynasty came to be known as the Moguls, even though he himself was a Turk. The great conqueror’s boyhood was full of fascinating vicissitudes, of sharp setbacks and spectacular successes. He ascended the throne of Ferghana at the age of twelve and ruled the country for the next six years. When he finally achieved his goal of becoming lord of Cabul, he was just four and twenty years old. When he was just forty-four years old, he defeated the enormous forces led by Ibrahim at the Battle of Panipat and took control of Delhi for himself. His army consisted of twelve thousand warriors. His campaigns were fought according to what were nearly like the ideas of knight errantry, and they were successful. His greatest triumphs were gained against insurmountable odds, with the help of followers who were determined to either win or perish in the process. In only three years, he was able to subjugate all of Hindustan. His figure stands out with an extraordinary fascination as an Eastern counterpart to the Western ideal of chivalry, and his autobiography is an absolutely unique record that presents what is almost the only specimen of real history in Asia. His figure stands out as an Eastern counterpart to the Western ideal of chivalry.
However, Baber did not live long enough to organise his kingdom before he passed away, and his son Humayun was unable to keep what had been conquered. Shir Khan, a very capable Muslim chief, was the one who hoisted the banner of the insurrection, made himself ruler of Behar and Bengal, pushed Humayun out of Hindustan, and then installed himself as Shir Shah. His reign was one that was marked by remarkable skill. After his father had been deceased for a significant amount of time, Humayun was finally able to reclaim the dominion that had been his father’s. In point of fact, he was the first to fall before the win was secured. Bairam Khan, a capable commander and minister, successfully led his army to victory at Panipat in 1556, and he did it in the name of his young son Akber, who was only thirteen years old at the time. The lengthy reign of Akber ushers in a new period in human history.
Two hundred years before to this period, the Deckan had successfully rebelled against the dominance of the Delhi. But neither unity nor dominance was ever firmly established in the southern part of India, where Muslim kingdoms were often in the ascendant at the time. Rather, the region was dominated by Islam. On the other hand, Rajputana, which the Delhi monarchs had never been able to completely subjugate, continued to be a Hindu state while being under the rule of a number of different rajahs.
The outcome of the war was decided by the victory at Panipat. Bairam, as was only to be expected, quickly gained full control of the State. His authority was effective, but tyrannical and conceited. After three years, the young king who had been the target of an unexpected coup d’état took control of the government. It’s possible that it worked out for the best for both of them that the deceased minister was killed by a rival of his own.
The Baber Dynasty was the most unstable in its foundations compared to the other kingdoms that had previously reigned in India. Throughout the vast empire that extended from Cabul to Bengal, there was not a single mechanism by which it could have been supported. The young man of eighteen had a challenging assignment ahead of him. It’s possible that it was Akber’s weakness that gave him the idea to give his power a new foundation by establishing himself as the leader of an Indian nation and uniting all of the people living under his vast dominion into a single community, regardless of their race or religion. This idea may have come to him as a result of this weakness. The young monarch’s actions were lightning fast and unexpected, and he thwarted one effort after another made by his subordinates to escape their obligations to him and his authority. By the time he was twenty-five, he had either defeated his opponents with the force of his vigour or attached them through the mercy of his character. The following phases were the subjugation of Rajputana, Ghuzerat, and Bengal; and when this was done, Akber’s influence stretched over the all of India north of the Deckan. To this, Kashmir and what we now call Afghanistan were added to Akber’s domain. Before Akber was able to aggressively meddle in the Deckan and put a significant portion of it under his control, he had to sit atop the throne for a full half-century first.
But the real beauty of Akber rests not in the conquests that made the Mogul Empire the largest that India had ever seen up to that point; rather, it is in the organisation and management of that empire. The kind of Mahometanism practised by the Akbers was the most latitudinarian variety. His tolerance reached its maximum level. He showed almost little respect for religious orthodoxy, despite the fact that he was thoroughly infused with the spirit of religion. Hinduism was not a disqualifying factor for attaining the highest ranks in line with his liberal views. In practise, however, his thought was groundbreaking, despite the fact that it was not novel in principle.
There is not a single one of his innovations that is more noteworthy than the revenue system that was carried out by his Hindu minister, Todar Mal. This system was itself a development of a system that was established by Shir Shah. His dominion was subdivided into fifteen provinces, each of which was ruled by a viceroy and was ultimately subject to the authority of the monarch. Akber, who was skilled both as a warrior and as an administrator, was constantly afforded a large deal of spare time, which he used to educate himself and enjoy himself. He was a master of all feats requiring physical prowess and dexterity; his past is replete with stories of chivalrous deeds, and he took a healthy delight in putting himself in perilous situations. However, he did not like war at all, and he never started or sustained a conflict unless there was a compelling justification for doing so.